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A prospective research study should be undertaken to directly compare CES with antidepressant medications and to compare the different CES technologies with each other. The major hypothesis for the use of CES in depression is that it may reset the brain to pre-stress homeostasis levels.

It is conjectured that the pulsed electrical currents emitted by cranial electrical stimulators affect changes in the limbic system, the reticular activating system, and/or the hypothalamus that result in neurotransmitter secretion and downstream hormone production. (Pub Med link) A double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed on 33 randomly selected dental patients to evaluate whether cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a viable procedure for reducing anxiety during routine dental procedures.

The depressive criteria did not respond differentially to treatment, however. Twenty-two patients, mostly outpatients, with neurotic anxiety and depression were each given a course of five half-hour treatments which were either active or simulated electrosleep.

Thus, the effects of this drug washout period are markedly attenuated by cerebral electrostimulation, which is of possible interest in the management of psychotropic drug withdrawal. In the simulated electrosleep the electrode leads were not connected to the machine.

Response to treatment was defined as a reduction of ≥50% or more on these measures.

RESULTS: Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the active CES group and the sham CES group on anxiety (p=0.001, d=0.94) and on depression (p=0.001, d=0.78) from baseline to endpoint of study in favor of the active CES group. (Pub Med link) BACKGROUND: Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population.

One additional patient significantly improved in anxiety scores but did not meet criteria for response.

Response to treatment was defined as a reduction of 50% or more on the HAM-A and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 ("much improved" or "very much improved," respectively).Twelve studies have been conducted using the Fisher Wallace Stimulator®, including a double-blind, placebo-controlled depression study at Mount Sinai Beth Israel Hospital that was published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease in 2015. Symptom non-remitters from both groups received an additional 2 weeks of open-label active treatment. (Pub Med link) Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders and are usually treated with medication and/or psychotherapy.The Fisher Wallace Stimulator® is frequently used by top substance abuse clinics, such as Phoenix House where a 392-subject study conducted in 2009 found the device increased 90-day rehab retention by 50%. Greenman, BA, Siva Sundeep Koppolu, MBBS, Maria Varvara, MD, Zimri S. Active CES treatment but not sham treatment was associated with a significant decrease in the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores from baseline to the second week (p = 0.003) maintaining significance until week 4 (p = 0.002). When anxiety disorders are accompanied with comorbid depression, this further complicates the treatment process.It is concluded that CES is a clinically significant addition to the treatment regimen for this patient population. (Pub Med link) In order to test the efficacy of cerebral electrostimulation (electrosleep) as an alternative to drug therapy for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia, we conducted a double-blind study in a sample of 21 depressed inpatients submitted to a 5-day period of drug washout on admission to the psychiatric department.Open PDF Philip P, Demotes-Mainard J, Bourgeois M, Vincent JD. During this withdrawal period, anxiety and insomnia were exacerbated in the placebo group, whereas anxiety decreased and sleep duration improved in the active treatment group, with a divergent evolution during the 5-day washout period. (Pub Med link) A double-blind clinical study evaluating the Russian electrosleep technique is presented.

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